The person centered therapy of Carl Rogers (1902- 1987) is a model that uses a non directive approach to therapy which allows that the person is his own healer and the therapist is actively listening to help that person reach
his own solutions.
A humanist perspective may include development mental models
which may or may not include typical male symbolism and image modelling used in a
positivistic manner based on meeting challenge…under the most adverse
circumstances they [potatoes] were striving to become, Rogers (1996 p8). Humanist
psychology would emphasize the relationship between therapist and client.
A major goal is to move youth from external controls to self-control and empowerment. This
entails building what Bandura (1986) calls self-reflective capabilities the ability to
think about, define, and evaluate one’s behaviour, Aubry &Walsh (2007) Reason
(1998), and Hertz (1997) have highlighted the importance of reflexivity, Berger (2009)
.Martin et al. (2005 ) quote Dewey (1933) in defining reflexive thinking as a priority, a
form of analysis championed by the Greeks on the temple of Delphi as “know thyself”
as a basis for decision making.
To Rogers the organic nature of a person is in a process of self actualization or
becoming. Let us begin with the individual who is content with himself, who has no
thought at this time of seeking counseling help.
We may find it useful to think of this individual as having an organized pattern of perceptions of self and self in relation to
others and to the environment.
Thoreau (1854): Such is oftenest the young man‘s
introduction to the forest, and the most original part of himself. He goes thither at first
as a hunter and fisher, until at last if he has the seeds of a better life in him he
distinguished his proper objects as a poet or naturalist it may be and leaves the gun or
fishing pole behind (p138 1995).
Rogers would call this the actualizing tendency, a continuous desire to grow naturally
in a positive direction. ―This configuration, this gestalt is, in its details a fluid and
changing thing but it is decidedly stable in its basic elements. Rogers (1951p191)
An “autotelic” person is one who is motivated intrinsically, and thus, is more likely to
pursue and achieve flow experiences Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, (1999)
quoted by Berman &.Davis–Berman (2005)
It can be argued that the rise of humanist thinking allows man to assume a self
serving central position in his cosmology and denigrate the importance of the non
human resulting in both positive and negative images of technological man as
somehow existing outside the natural order.
It is time to advance a paradigm shift
from an anthropocentric to an ecocentric in adventure therapy ―Berger &McLeod
(2006) Beringer & Martin (2003) Kuhn, (2001) Pilisuk & Joy (2001) Roszak, (2001).